Heat 2 tablespoons of olive oil in medium Dutch Oven or heavy lidded saucepan over medium heat. Add the carrots, shallots, and garlic, and cook until soft, stirring, about 10 minutes. Add the white wine and simmer until liquid is slightly reduced, about 5 minutes. Add the white beans, 4 cups of broth, the thyme sprigs, and bay leaf and bring to boil. Reduce heat to medium-low and simmer 15 minutes. Add the chard and simmer for 10 more minutes. Remove thyme sprigs and bay leaf. Add more broth by 1/2 cupfuls to thin stew, if desired. Mix in Sherry wine vinegar, half the pecorino and parsley. Taste for seasoning, and add salt and pepper as necessary.